Thursday, January 26, 2012

3rd Generation Nuclear Reactor


Before that Third Generation Reactor ini adalah Teknologi yg terbaru dalam membangunkan loji Nuklear. Dimana loji yg akan dibina sekitar tahun 2010-2030 akan menggunakan 3rd Generation Reactor ini. lebih selamat dan inovatif 



generation III reactor is a development of any of the generation II nuclear reactor designs incorporating evolutionary improvements in design developed during the lifetime of the generation II reactor designs. These include improved fuel technology, superior thermal efficiency, passive safety systems and standardized design for reduced maintenance and capital costs.
Improvements in reactor technology result in a longer operational life (60 years of operation, extendable to 120+ years of operation prior to complete overhaul and reactor pressure vessel replacement) compared with currently used generation II reactors (designed for 40 years of operation, extendable to 80+ years of operation prior to complete overhaul and RPV replacement). Furthermore, core damage frequencies for these reactors are lower than for Generation II reactors — 60 core damage events per 1000 million reactor–year for the EPR; 3 core damage events per 1000 million reactor–year for the ESBWR significantly lower than the 10,000 core damage events per 1000 million reactor–year for BWR/4 generation II reactors.

Third-generation reactors have:
  1. a standardised design for each type to expedite licensing, reduce capital cost and reduce construction time
  2. a simpler and more rugged design, making them easier to operate and less vulnerable to operational upsets,
  3. higher availability and longer operating life - typically 60 years,
  4. further reduced possibility of core melt accidents,*
  5. 72-hour grace period, so that following shutdown the plant requires no active intervention for 72 hours,  
  6. resistance to serious damage that would allow radiological release from an aircraft impact,
  7. higher burn-up to reduce fuel use and the amount of waste,
  8. greater use of burnable absorbers ("poisons") to extend fuel life.

Nuclear Power Plant Schematic Diagram
Generation III+ designs offer significant improvements in safety and economics over Generation III advanced reactor designs certified by the NRC in the 1990s.
  • Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-1000)
  • AP1000 — based on the AP600 with increased power output
  • European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) — an evolutionary descendant of the Framatome N4 and Siemens Power Generation Division KONVOI reactors.
  • Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) — based on the ABWR
  • APR-1400 — an advanced PWR design evolved from the U.S. System 80+, which is the basis for the Korean Next Generation Reactor or KNGR
  • VVER-1200/392M (PWR) — in design of AES-2006 with mainly passive safety features
  • VVER-1200/491 (PWR) — in design of AES-2006 with mainly active safety features, international sold as MIR.1200
  • EU-ABWR — based on the ABWR with increased power output and compliance with EU safety standard.
  • Advanced PWR (APWR) — 4th Generation of PWR from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries


AP1000
The Westinghouse AP1000 is a 2-loop PWR which has evolved from the smaller AP600, one of the first Generation III reactor designs certified by the US NRC, in 2005. Simplification was a major design objective of the AP1000, in overall safety systems, normal operating systems, the control room, construction techniques, and instrumentation and control systems provide cost savings with improved safety margins.  It has a core cooling system including passive residual heat removal by convection, improved containment isolation, passive containment cooling system to the atmosphere and in-vessel retention of core damage (corium) with water cooling around it. No safety-related pumps or ventilation systems are needed.


ABWR 
The advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) is derived from a General Electric design. Design life is 60 years. It has a high level of active safety.

ESBWR 
GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy's ESBWR is a Generation III+ technology that utilizes passive safety features and natural circulation principles and is essentially an evolution from a predecessor design, the SBWR at 670 MWe.  GE-H says it is safer and more efficient than earlier models, with 25% fewer pumps, valves and motors, and can maintain cooling for six days after shutdown with no AC or battery power.  The emergency core cooling system has eliminated the need for pumps, using passive and stored energy. GEH is selling this alongside the ABWR, which it characterises as more expensive to build and operate, but proven.  ESBWR is more innovative, with lower building and operating costs and a 60-year life.


APWR


The Mitsubishi advanced pressurized water reactor (APWR) is a generation III nuclear reactor developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries based on pressurized water reactor technology. It features several design enhancements including a neutron reflector, improved efficiency and improved safety systems. It has safety features advanced over the last generation, including a combination of passive and active systems.
The reactors are intended for use in nuclear power plants to produce nuclear power from nuclear fuel.

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